Top > Application Examples > South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Application Examples

South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Students Use Simulation Technology to Improve Underground Mine Safety

[Vol.2] Historically, improper mine ventilation has caused major disruptions in mining operations and can endanger worker health and safety. This paper discusses research being performed by students at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology to better understand ventilation in mines. The students used Software Cradle’s SC/Tetra CFD software to simulate the airflow inside the working areas of the mine. The following narrative interview highlights their achievements.

Figure 3: Image showing velocity contours of CFD domains used to represent different air gap heights
(click to enlarge)

CFD Analysis of Block Cave Mining

The Mine Ventilation Research Group at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology used Cradle’s SC/Tetra CFD software to better understand how the air gap affects the ventilation system in block caving mines. The students modeled different cave geometries having different air gap heights. The students then conducted a steady state CFD analysis on each of the models using the same inflow velocity condition for each of the air gaps. By using a velocity condition, the mass flow through each geometry will be the same; however, the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet will vary.

CFD Model used to Represent the Block Cave

The students tracked the pressure drop across the cave from the intake to the exhaust side for each of the air gap heights. Knowing the mass flow and the pressure drop, the students calculated the cave resistance and shock loss. Cave resistance and shock loss values help engineers define the resultant pressure loss of a cave system and the mass flow rate and enable engineers to select fans and configurations that keep the mass flow moving through the mine.The students observed that for air gaps from 4 m to 12 m, the cave resistance and shock loss across the mine initially decreased. Then it reached a minimum as the air gap grew from 12 m to 18 m. Finally, cave resistance and shock loss started to increase as the air gap height grew over 18 m.


Radon Concentration Prediction

The next step in the research was to use CFD to simulate radon gas distribution throughout the mine. Experimentally, mining engineers cannot monitor radon concentration at every location inside the mine. As a result, Using experimental data to predict radon levels throughout the mining network is virtually impossible. CFD offered a viable alternative.


Radon is characterized as a radioactive gas, meaning it constantly releases radiation. As the radon gas decomposes (decays) into more stable (less radioactive) elements, radiation energy is released. These elements are called radon daughters. The rate of the decay is called the half-life, which is the time for one half of the radon mass to decay into its daughter element. Some of the elements in the radioactive decay chain have short half-lives and some have longer half-lives. Due to this decaying process, the gas density actually changes with time. The students used the SC/Tetra’s chemical reaction function to model the radon decay process. This enabled the simulation to account for the changing properties of the decaying radioactive gas as it is dispersed throughout the mine.


Upon the completion of the simulation, the students needed a way to verify their model accuracy. To do this, they compared their results to the generally accepted empirical relationship between the quantity of fresh air supplied and the amount of radon concentration diluted. The results were in agreement and the discrepancy is thought to be due to the assumptions made in the empirical model. Furthermore, past research suggests that the empirical model underestimates the amount of fresh air needed and is in agreement with the students’ findings.


The method the students used to model the radon gas needs to be further validated; however, the preliminary results are good and show a number of promising advantages over empirical methods. The empirical prediction only accounts for the radon level at the exit of the airway, whereas CFD allows engineers to account for spatial and time dependent radon mitigation. Therefore, using CFD, engineers will be able to predict the actual concentration of the radon throughout the mine. This is in addition to being able to most likely make much better predictions about the amount of supplied fresh air needed to dilute radon concentrations to a safe level.


Industry and academia will need to collaborate to validate the CFD models with field/experimental data. Dr. Tukkaraja offered some insight about the acceptance of CFD simulation in the mining industry.


“CFD has been slow to gain popularity among mining engineers because the verification of the results is hard to obtain. This is because field studies and experimental results are required for verification of CFD results. In some mining applications, it may not be feasible to verify the CFD results for some cases. However, as more results from CFD are validated, more and more of the people in the mining industry will see a reason to explore CFD as a research and development tool.”


Cradle SC/Tetra and Mine Ventilation Simulation

The Mine Ventilation Research Group at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology chose Cradle’s SC/Tetra CFD software because of its robust and easy to use pre-processor which was useful in modeling the complex block cave mining domains. SC/Tetra was also chosen because of the software’s ability to model many different physical phenomena, including chemical reactions. However, one of the most important reasons SC/Tetra was chosen was because of the excellent, fast, and friendly technical support that Cradle North America provides.


Dr. Tukkaraja summarized these challenges saying:


"One of the most challenging aspects of CFD application in the mining industry is the complexity of mining operations. Most of the underground openings include a number of tunnels with different designs which makes it hard to fully represent in the software. The complex geometry of mining operations also introduces meshing problems in CFD simulations.”


He also offered comments about the value of working with Cradle and using SC/Tetra for mine simulation.


“In general, SC/Tetra is a great tool to use for underground mine ventilation applications because the software is user friendly and can efficiently solve the large meshes that will be used to model the underground mining domains. We continue to use Cradle because of the excellent technical support that they have been providing to us.”

*All product and service names mentioned are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies.
*Contents and specifications of products are as of March 31, 2016 and subject to change without notice. We shall not be held liable for any errors in figures and pictures, or any typographical errors in this brochure.

Institute Details


South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Founded 1885
Accreditation The Higher Learning Commission
Location Rapid City, SD, USA



The article is also available in pdf.



Featured Software


General Purpose Unstructured Mesh Thermal-fluid Analysis System
More Details

Visitors also read


Kanto Gakuin University

Hands-on Lectures of scSTREAM for CFD Simulation in Class Helps Students Better Understand Fluid/Thermal Phenomena in Indoor Environments



Using Fluid Analysis Capabilities to Improve Marine Propeller Efficiency and Stay Ahead of International Competition

  • SCRYU/Tetra

CaptiveAire Systems, Inc.

Using CFD to Measure Humidity Evacuation Efficiency for a Kitchen Exhaust Hood System


Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.

Deciding CFD Tool Based on Thorough Evaluation of Benchmark Model

  • SCRYU/Tetra


Contact us from the inquiry form below for any inquiry regarding this article.